Basic Structural System | Building Construction

Basic Structural System | Building Construction-

Classification of Structural system was introduced by fazlur khan.exterior and interior are two parts of structural system.structural system means the load resisting structure of building which transfer the load through its member. 

empire state building


Structural system refers to the load resisting system of a building which transfers the load through its member.two main duties of structural system is to provide stability and durability.Selection of structural system depends upon some major factors-types of demand of the building,height of the building,etc.In 1969 classification of structural system was introduced by the structural engineer Fazlur khan.
In simple words the whole system can be classified into two parts-

  1. Interior structure,
  2. Exterior structure.

There are various types of interior and exterior structure which can be used according to the demand of structure.Following examples are the most widely used structural system.

Moment frame system-Moment frame also called rigid frame system are designed to resist lateral forces by developing shear forces and bending moments in the member and joints of the structure. 

 The basic advantage of this system is that it does not have any structural walls.Other pros are-Due to this system deflection occurs in very small amount,moment get distributed etc.     

 But when seismic forces comes into the account the rigid frame structure becomes unsuitable as this type of structure has no detailed designing criteria for seismic forces.                                                                                                                                   
Rigid frame structure

  • Core and outrigger structural system- This type of structural system consists of mainly two parts-Core and perimeter columns where the core of the structure is connected with perimeter columns by deep beam known as outrigger.                                                                                                                                           The advantage of this system is that due to the shape of this system,force on core foundation is reduced and outrigger helps to distribute the overturning loads on foundation.It also reduces the deformation caused by overturning moment.                     
  •  Many high rise buildings are made by using core and outrigger system as this is good in taking vertical loads as well as the lateral loads.                                                                       

  • outrigger truss

  • Tube system-  The tubular system is one of the best system for skyscrapers as it resist lateral loads like wind,seismic etc very effectively.In this case building is used to designed to act as a hollow cylinder ,cantilevered perpendicular to ground.                              The exterior columns are placed in very close spaced and are connected together by deep beam.core and exterior can be tied together  with beam and can be free of column.                                                                                                                Advantage of this system is that effectiveness of exterior structure is high as it transfer some gravity load within the core structure.                                                                      many variants of tube structure are present-                                                                     i. braced tube, ii. bundled tube,iii. tube in tube etc.                                                            Tubular structures high resisting capacity while braced tube structure is high in strength but has lower ductility compared to other tubular structure.                                      
    evolution of structure

  • evolution of structure

  • Load bearing structure-  It is a type of structure where load of the structure transferred to the foundations through the walls. Masonry wall with reinforcement improves the load carrying capacity of the structure.                                                           Pros of this type of structure is that it is good and cheap.                                               Cons- bad for earthquake load,occupy more space as it need thicker wall to support the load,not suited at all for high rise building as very low in ductility.                                             
    load bearing structure

  • load bearing structure


After knowing all the structural types we need to understand the demand of the structure because we cannot use similar type of structure for every building.As a engineer it is very important to know the advantages and disadvantages of every structural system so that changes can be made to fulfill the requirement of any structure.There are some major factors that should taken in account(magnitude of wind load,earthquake load,dead load,live load,durability of structure,etc.)

I Hope you liked this information about structural system that are generally used.Spread the knowledge with others.
Basic Structural System | Building Construction Basic Structural System | Building Construction Reviewed by Sk rafiqul islam on July 25, 2018 Rating: 5

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